The Lost Generation - Nessie School of Languages (2023)

The termlost generationwas coined byGertrud Steinto refer to a group of American literary figures living in Paris1920ermi1930er.In the years after World War I, a number of intellectuals, poets, artists, and writers who followed the bohemian lifestyle and rejected the values ​​of American materialism fled. Speaking to Ernest Hemingway, Stain said: "You are all a lost generation." The term stucco and the mysticism that surrounds this town continues to fascinate us. Filled with youthful idealism, these individuals searched for meaning in life, drank to excess, had romantic affairs, and created some of the best American literature to date. There have been many literary artists involved in groups known as the Lost Generation. The three best known are F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and John Dos Passos. Others that often make the list include: Sherwood Anderson, Kay Boyle, Hart Crane, Ford Maddox Ford, Waldo Pierce, Sylvia Beach, Vladimir Nabokov, Alfred Hitchcock,it Zelda Fitzgerald.Examples of members of the lost generation include:Elsa Maxwell Damon Runyon sinclair lewis,Jorge Patton,Arbuckle Shackle,irving berlin,Walter Lippman,Dwight D. Eisenhower,conde warren,Humphrey Bogart,George burns,dorothy parker,More generally, the term is used toGenerationof young people reach the age of majority inUnited States of Americaduring and immediately afterFirst World War🇧🇷 For this reason, the generation is sometimes referred to as the WWI Generation or the WWI Generation.roar 20sGeneration. In Europe they are better known as the Right Generation.1914, named for the year World War I began. InsideFrance, the country where many expatriates have settledfire generation, the generation of fire.wilhelm straussmineil howein his bookgenerationslist the birth years of this generation as1883towardsone thousand nine hundred🇧🇷 Your typical grandparents were thesegolden generation🇧🇷 were your parentsProgressive Generationmimissionary generation🇧🇷 His children were theIG-Generationmiquiet generation🇧🇷 His typical grandchildren werebaby boomers.


The "lost generation" was said to be disillusioned with the high death toll of World War I, cynical and dismissive of Victorian notions of morality and propriety among their elders. Like most attempts to classify entire generations, this generalization applies to some individuals in the generation and not others. It was not uncommon for members of this group to complain that American art culture did not have the breadth of European work, causing many members to spend a lot of time in Europe, and/or that all the topics covered there deserved to be covered in a literary framework. the work that existed was already covered. . However, during the same period, American literature and art experienced an explosion in what is now often regarded as some of the best literary classics produced by American writers. This generation also spawned the first flowering of jazz music, possibly the first distinctly American art form.

The writers of the lost generation gained prominence in the literature of the 20th century. His innovations challenged assumptions about writing and expression, paving the way for subsequent generations of writers. Ernest Hemingway was the leader of the lost generation in adapting the naturalistic technique to the novel. John Dos Passos also saw the brutality of the war and questioned the meaning of life today. His novel Manhattan Transfer reveals the extent of his pessimism by pointing out the hopeless futility of life in a big American city. F. Scott Fitzgerald is considered a representative of the jazz age.Alabama

Her dominant influences were aspiration, literature, Princeton, Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald, and alcohol. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was born in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1896. His first published writing of him was a detective novel in the school newspaper when he was thirteen years old. From 1911 to 1913 he attended the Newman School, a Catholic preparatory school in New Jersey, where he met Father Sigourney Fay, who encouraged his ambitions for distinction and personal fulfillment. A member of the Princeton class of 1917, he wrote the scripts and lyrics for the Princeton Triangle Club musicals and contributed to thePrinceton-Tigrehumor magazine innassau literary magazine🇧🇷 Fitzgerald enlisted in the Army in 1917. Convinced that he would die in the war, he quickly wrote a novel, ?the egotistical romantic🇧🇷 He fell in love with Zelda Sayre, the youngest daughter of an Alabama Supreme Court Justice. Fitzgerald returned to St. Paul to rewrite her novel asThis side of paradise.It was accepted by Scribners editor Maxwell Perkins. Set primarily in Princeton and described as a "quest novel" by its author.this side of paradisechronicles the career aspirations and heartbreak of Amory Blaine.

In 1919, Fitzgerald began his career writing stories for mass magazines. Fitzgerald worked with agent Harold Ober and stopped working on his novels to write profitable popular fiction for the rest of his life.Saturday night mail diesbecame Fitzgerald's best story market, and was considered ?mailWriter.? His early commercial stories about young love introduced a new character: the determined, independent American girl who appeared in ?The Offshore Pirate? and "Bernice Cuts Her Hair". Fitzgerald's most ambitious stories like ?May Day? and ?A diamond the size of the Ritz? appeared inThe smart set, which had a small edition.

the publication ofthis side of paradiseOn March 26, 1920, the 24-year-old Fitzgerald rose to fame almost overnight, and a week later he married Zelda Sayre in New York. They began extravagant lives as young celebrities. Fitzgerald strove for a solid literary reputation, but his playboy image prevented his work from being properly appreciated. He wrote the second novel by him.The beauty and the cursed, a naturalistic chronicle of dispersal by Anthony and Gloria Patch. The Fitzgeralds hoped to get rich from their gambling,The vegetable.They moved to Great Neck, Long Island to be close to Broadway. The distractions of New York prevented Fitzgerald from making progress on his third novel. During this time, her alcohol consumption increased. He was an alcoholic but wrote sober.

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Literary tastemakers were reluctant to give Fitzgerald full marks as a serious craftsman. His drunken reputation inspired the myth that he was an irresponsible writer; however, he was a meticulous proofreader whose fiction went through layers of drafts. Fitzgerald's clean, lyrical, colorful and witty style evoked the emotions associated with the time and place. The main theme of Fitzgerald's work is the effort, the idealism that he saw as the definition of the American character. Another important theme was mutability or loss. As a social historian, Fitzgerald identified with the Jazz Age: "Was it an age of wonder, an age of art, an age of excess, and an age of satire," he wrote?Echoes of the Jazz Age.🇧🇷 The Fitzgeralds went to France in 1924 in search of the tranquility of their work. He wroteThe Great Gatsbyat Valescure near St. Raphael, but the marriage was strained by Zelda's relationship with a French naval aviator.The Great GatsbyIt marked an impressive advance in Fitzgerald's technique, using complex structure and a controlled narrative point of view. Fitzgerald's performance was met with critical acclaim, but sales were staggering.gatsbythey were disappointing, although the theatrical and film rights brought additional revenue.

In Paris, Fitzgerald met Ernest Hemingway, then unknown outside foreign literary circles, with whom he developed a friendship based largely on his admiration for Hemingway's personality and genius. Fitzgerald made little headway with her fourth novel, a study of American expatriates in France tentatively titled The Boy Who Killed Her Mother. 🇧🇷 Our guy? Y? World Fair.?

Maximum Fitzgerald story fee of $4,000Saturday night mail dieshe may have had a purchasing power of $40,000 in today's dollars in 1929. However, the overall picture of his wealth is distorted. Fitzgerald was not among the highest paid writers of his day; His novels made comparatively little, and most of his income came from 160 magazine stories. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald spent money faster than they did; The author who wrote so eloquently about the effects of money on character was incapable of managing his own finances. The Fitzgeralds returned to the United States in the fall of 1931. Fitzgerald made a second unsuccessful trip to Hollywood in 1931.

In 1932, while a patient at Johns Hopkins, Zelda Fitzgerald quickly wroteHello me in Valsa🇧🇷 His autobiographical novel caused considerable bitterness among the Fitzgeralds, as they saw it as an anticipation of the material he was using in his ongoing novel. Fitzgerald completed his fourth novel,the night is sweet🇧🇷 His most ambitious novel, published in 1934, failed commercially and its merits were the subject of critical debate. Set in France in the 1920s,the night is sweetinvestigates the decline of Dick Diver, a brilliant American psychiatrist, during his marriage to a wealthy mentally ill man.

The period 1936-1937 is known as the ?crack-up? from the title of an essay Fitzgerald wrote in 1936. Sick, drunk, in debt, and unable to write business stories, he lived in hotels near Asheville, North Carolina. Fitzgerald went to Hollywood alone in the summer of 1937 on a six-month, $1,000-a-week script contract from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. He got his only screen credit for the customization.three friends(1938), and his contract was extended for one year. The $91,000 he earned from MGM was a lot of money in the waning years of the Depression; but although Fitzgerald had paid most of his debts, he could not save. Fitzgerald worked as a freelance screenwriter and wrote short stories for Esquire. He began their Hollywood romance,The love of the last tycoon, in 1939 and had written more than half of a working draft when he died of a heart attack at the Graham home on December 21, 1940. Zelda Fitzgerald died in a fire at Highland Hospital in 1948. F. Scott Fitzgerald even died believing he was wrong. The obituaries were condescending and he seemed destined for literary obscurity. The first phase of Fitzgerald's resurrection ?Renaissance? it does not adequately describe the process that took place between 1945 and 1950. By 1960 he had secured a place among America's enduring writers.The Great Gatsby, a work that seriously explores the theme of effort in an American setting, defines the classic American novel.


John Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. He is best remembered for THE GRAPES OF WRATH (1939), a novel widely considered a 20th-century classic. The impact of the book was compared to that ofHarriet Beecher Stowe'sUncle Tom's Cabin🇧🇷 Steinbeck's epic about the migration of the Joad family, who were driven from their land in Oklahoma to California, sparked a wide debate about the plight of migrant workers and helped implement land reform. He was born in Salinas, California. His home region of Monterey Bay later became the setting for most of his novels. Steinbeck learned to love books from his mother, a teacher. Between 1920 and 1926 he studied marine biology at Stanford University, but never got a degree, always wanted to be a writer. Several of his early poems and short stories appeared in university publications. After a brief stint as a worker and reporter in New York City for theAmericano.As a caretaker of a house in the High Sierra, Steinbeck wrote his first book CUP OF GOLD (1929). He was unable to recover the $250 the publisher had given him in advance.

Steinbeck met Edward Ricketts at Pacific Grove in the early 1930s. He was a marine biologist whose views on the interdependence of all life profoundly influenced Steinbeck's thinking. O SEA DE CORTEZ (1941) arises from an expedition in the Gulf of California that he carried out with Ricketts. In the novel TO AN UNKNOWN GOD (1933), Steinbeck mixed Ricketts's ideas with him.Jungianconcepts and themes. The novel follows a farmer, Joseph Wayne, who receives a blessing from his pioneer father, John Wayne, and builds a new farm for himself in a remote valley. Joseph develops his own belief in death and life, and to end the drought he sacrifices himself on a rock and becomes "Earth and Rain". Without wanting to explain too much of his story, Steinbeck knew in advance that the book would find no readers. Steinbeck's first three novels went largely unnoticed, but his humorous tale of fun-loving Mexicans, TORTILLA FLAT, in 1935 brought him greater recognition. However, the subject of the book, the story of King Arthur and the founding of the Round Table, remained well hidden from critics. IN DUBIOUS BATTLE (1936) was a strike novel set in Apple Country, California. The strike of nine hundred migrant workers is led by Jim Nolan, who is committed to their cause. Subsequently, Steinbeck developed his personality as an observer with changes in works such as CANNERY ROW (1945), which returned to the world ofomelette flache🇧🇷 The novel was an account of the adventures and misadventures of California canners and their friends. Its sequel, SWEET THURSDAY, came out in 1954. 1937 saw the release of THE RED PONY, one of his best works. The events will take place at Tiflin Ranch in California's Salinas Valley. The first two parts of the story sequence, "The Gift" and "The Great Mountains", were published inNorth American reviewin 1933, and the third section, "The Promise," did not appear inharpistsuntil 1937. In 1949 a film adaptation was made, for which Steinbeck wrote the screenplay. It belongs to other Steinbeck scripts.The Pearl, the film history of Alfred Hitchcocklifeboat(1944), and screenplay forIt's lebe Zapata!(1952).

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OF MICSE AND MEN (1937), a story of shattered dreams, was Steinbeck's first major success. Steinbeck also adapted it into a three-act play produced in 1937. George Milton and Lennia Small, two itinerant farmhands, dream of one day owning a small farm. George acts as a father figure to Lennie, who is tall and naive. Lennie loves anything soft, but his tremendous physical strength is a source of trouble and she needs George to calm him down. The two friends find work on a farm and start saving money for the future. Angered by the tyrannical farm foreman, Lenny breaks the foreman's arm, but also piques the interest of the farm owner's flirtatious daughter-in-law. Lenny accidentally kills her and flees to the hideout he and George agreed to use in case they get into trouble. George runs after Lenny and shoots him before he is captured by a vengeful mob, but at the same time he loses his own hopes and dreams of a better future.

Throughgrapes of wrathSteinbeck toured the California immigrant camps in 1936. When the book came out, it was attacked by U.S. Congressman Lyle Boren, who called it "a lie, the black, hellish creation of a twisted, twisted mind." Later, when Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize from him, the Swedish Academy called it simply "an epic chronicle." The story of the Okies' exodus on their way to an uncertain future in California ends with a scene of Rose nursing a starving man from Sharon, who has just given birth to a stillborn child.

John Ford's 1940 film version, produced by Darryl F. Zanuck, discarded that ending: the final frames optimistically celebrate President Roosevelt's New Deal. Steinbeck himself doubted Hollywood's loyalty to the material.

Escape from the public eye followed by the success ofgrapes of wrath, Steinbeck went to Mexico in 1940 to film the documentaryforgotten town🇧🇷 During World War II, Steinbeck served as a war correspondent for New YorkHerold Tribunein Great Britain and the Mediterranean. He wrote government propaganda such as the novel THE MOON IS DOWN (1942) about the resistance movement in a small Nazi-occupied town. The film version of the book, starring Henry Travers, Cedric Hardwicke and Lee J. Cobb, was shot on the set ofHow green was my valley(1941), depicting a Welsh mining town. "Free men cannot start a war",

Steinbeck's postwar works include LA PERLA (1947), a symbolic story of Kino, a Mexican Indian who was diving for pearls. He finds a priceless pearl that changes his life, but not in the way he expected. Kino sees the pearl as a chance for a better life. When the townspeople of La Paz learn of Kino's treasure, he soon finds himself surrounded by a greedy priest, doctor, and businessmen. Kino's family suffers a series of disasters, eventually throwing the pearl into the sea. After that, his tragedy is legendary in the city. A RUSSIAN DIARY (1948) was an account of the author's trip to the Soviet Union with photographer Robert Capa. Steinbeck's idea was to describe the country without prejudice, but he couldn't roam freely, he didn't know Russian, and the Soviet hosts made sure he forgo tables with vodka, champagne, caviar, chicken, honey, tomatoes, kebabs, and watermelon. of his guests.

Director Elia Kazan met Steinbeck when the author broke up with Gwyn and was drinking heavily. The most famous film project of of Eden, covered the last part of the book. James Dean made his film debut. Kazan originally wanted Marlon Brando to play the role of Cal. Dean received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. EAST OF EDEN (1952), Steinbeck's long-running family novel, is set in turn-of-the-century rural California. At the heart of the saga, based in part on the story of Cain and Abel, are two families of settlers, the Trasks and the Hamiltons, whose stories reflect the founding of the United States when "church and brothel came to the Wild West." ". ." simultaneously ..." The second half of the book focuses on the lives of the twins Aron and Caleb and their conflict. Among them is Cathy, small, pretty, but adulterous and murderous.

Steinbeck recorded his writing process in JOURNAL OF A NOVEL (1969). Throughout his life, Steinbeck wrote thousands of letters, sometimes several a day. In 1962 he published VIAGENS WITH CHARLEY IN SEARCH OF AMERICA. His son John wrote in his memoir that Steinbeck was too shy to talk to the characters in the book. THE WINTER OF OUR DISCONTENT (1961), set in present-day America, was Steinbeck's last great novel. He continued his exploration of the moral dilemmas involved in being a whole human being. The book was not well received and was considered a sell out by critics. Not even the Nobel Prize has changed his mind.The New York Times newspaperhe asked in an editorial if the awards committee couldn't have made a better choice. Steinbeck took this public humiliation seriously. Years later he did many special reports abroad, dividing his time between New York and California. He went to Vietnam to cover the war and to New Yorkmailattacked him for betraying his liberal past. Steinbeck died of a heart attack in New York in 1968. In ACTS OF KING ARTHUR AND HIS NOBLE KNIGHTS (1976), published posthumously, Steinbeck turned his back on contemporary events and brought the Arthurian world to life with his ancient codes of honor. Steinbeck enthusiastically began the work but never finished it.

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guillermo faulkner (1897-1962)

From an early age, William Cuthbert Faulkner strove for greatness and heard stories and legends from his distinguished family's past. William was born in New Albany, Mississippi, but the family soon moved to Oxford.
In June 1918 Faulkner joined the Royal Canadian Air Force. After Faulkner dropped out of college in 1921, he took a brief job at a New York bookstore; There he met Sherwood Anderson's future wife, Elizabeth Prall. The first volume of poetry by him.the marble faun(1924) continued his work in a decadent neo-romantic direction.
In Anderson's literary circle, Faulkner was introduced to Freud's sexual theories and the mythical world of anthropologist Sir James Frazer.golden branch,and the far-reaching implications of the literary innovations of T. S. Eliot and James Joyce. He, too, absorbed the despair of the baby boomer generation and melded all these influences, first in a series of literary sketches edited byPicayune del New Orleans Timesmithe double dealer(a literary magazine) and then in a first novel,soldier salaries.Meanwhile, Faulkner left for Europe, spending time in Italy and England, but reacting strongly to France and beginning a lifelong love affair with that country. Returning to Mississippi, Faulkner held various jobs while working on his second novel.mosquitos(1927). For him, 1929 marked the beginning of what critics called "the great years." (ending in 1942) when he wrote the seven novels (of twenty in all) that are considered his masterpieces. The impetus for this extraordinary explosion cameof the tailor(1929) when Faulkner decided to focus on what he called his "little solo label"? Yoknapatawpha County; All the great novels are set there, in or around Jefferson, the county seat. The city obviously shows Oxford and the surrounding Lafayette County. As a result of this approach, Faulkner was able to create a ?cosmos? mythical. himself with interconnected mythical structures and characters, populating his world with all the different people he has ever met; He made a determined effort to portray the experiences of women, blacks, and Native Americans alike, showing nostalgia for lost traditions and the vanishing wilderness while condemning materialistic culture and racial injustice. Faulkner's first masterpiece,The Sound and the Furywas published in 1929. Faulkner wrote this book with a little girl in muddy underwear in mind who climbed a pear tree to see her grandmother's body lying in the living room. Told in three consecutive first-person narratives by three brothers and ultimately through the conscience of their black housekeeper, the story keeps returning to the same themes in different voices. Documenting both the loss of family love and honor and the decline of a great culture in a radically new prose style, the book garnered critical acclaim but sold just as poorly as its successor.while i die(1930).

Desperate for money, Faulkner began the first of several ill-fated stints in Hollywood as a screenwriter (1932-1936; 1942-1945; parts of 1951 and 1954). He wrote much of his next novel,light in august(1932), during a trip to New York. One of her two or three best works, it tells the deceptively simple story of Lena Grove, a farm girl who wanders the South in search of the father of her unborn child. This narrative connects on many levels to its close, the much longer and more tragic story of Joe Christmas, an orphan like Lena, who may or may not be of black blood. The novel delves into race, religion, and sexuality, as well as the role of memory and the past in human consciousness.Absalom, Absalom!(1936) is generally considered Faulkner's most monumental achievement. Four narrators, including Quentin Compson fromThe sound and the anger.and his Harvard roommate, Shreve McCannon, attempt to unravel the mysteries surrounding the rise and fall of Thomas Sutpen, a self-taught planter and divine creator of Supten's Hundreds, a vast plantation. The novel delves into the darkest corners of personal history, exploring incest, interracial love, psychic perversion, and materialistic obsession while depicting the sufferings of blacks and whites during the Civil War and Reconstruction and the upcoming trials. from the south. after his tragic story.

Faulkner continued to experimentthe wild palms(1939), alternating chapters of two separate stories, one about a convict's efforts to safely rescue a woman and her baby from a Mississippi River flood, the other focusing on a tragic, adulterous love story. He returned to the old form in his last two masterpieces,The village(1940) zmoses descends(1942). The first, Faulkner's best comedy, begins a trilogy of novels about the rise of the Snopes family that continuesThe city(1957) midie village(1959).moses descendsCreated through Faulkner's reworking and stitching together existing stories, it concerns Ike McCaslin's efforts to deny his family's tragic racial history, which includes his grandfather fathering a son with his mulatto daughter. The narrative reaches its climax in perhaps Faulkner's most powerful and enduring work, The Bear. that explores the meaning of history, masculinity and responsibility towards nature with a treasure hunt.

The direction of his career has always been uncertain, and all his books except ?Sanctuary? were out of print before being published by Malcolm CowleyThe portable Faulknerin 1946, which marked the beginning of a reassessment of Faulkner's career. Faulknercollected storiesappeared in 1950 and paved the way for his acceptance of the Nobel Prize in Literature, where his brief but forceful acceptance speech caused a stir; he foresaw that man would not only resist; he would prevail. Faulkner's last decade combined the escalation of disease, accidents and alcoholism with public appearances and speeches. His persistent, often heroic, involvement in dissecting racism points to a deal with W.E.B. Du Bois's claim that "the problem of the 20th century is the problem of the color line." Faulkner's deep sense of history and tradition in no way curbed his appetite for modern solutions, both stylistic and philosophical, to literary, social, and spiritual problems. He stated a few years before his death that ?The first work of the writer...? he is "always in search of the soul... Searching for the soul and giving an adequate and moving picture of man in the human situation."

ERNEST HEMINGWAYenfermo) Hemingway (1898-1

Hemingway received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954. He was unable to attend the award ceremony in Stockholm because he had recovered from injuries sustained in a plane crash while hunting in Uganda. Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois. Hemingway published the first short stories and poems by him in the high school newspaper. After graduating in 1917, Hemingway worked as a reporter for six months.The Kansas City star.He then joined the volunteer ambulance unit in Italy during World War I. In 1918 he suffered a serious leg injury and received two prizes from the Italian government. The novel A FAREWELL TO ARMS (1929) grew out of his affair with the American nurse Agnes von Kurowsky. The tragic love story was first made into a movie in 1932, starring Gary Cooper. After the war, Hemingway briefly worked as a journalist in Chicago. In 1921 he moved to Paris, where he wrote articles for theToronto Star.This Europe Hemingway related to writers likeGertrud SteinmiF. Scott Fitzgerald,who edited some of his texts and acted as his agent. Hemingway later played Fitzgerald in A MOVEABLE FAST (1964), but not in a friendly way. Fitzgerald, however, mourned the lost friendship. When he wasn't writing for himself or the newspaper, Hemingway traveled through France, Switzerland, and Italy with his wife, the former Elisabeth Hadley. In 1922 he traveled to Greece and Turkey to report on the war between these countries. In 1923, Hemingway made two trips to Spain, the second to see bullfights at the annual Pamplona festival.

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Hemingway's first books, THREE STORIES AND TEN POEMS (1923) and IN OUR TIME (1924), were published in Paris. FRRING'S ORRENTES was published in 1926 and Hemingway's first serious novel THE SUN ALSO RISES in the same year. The novel is about a group of expatriates in France and Spain, members of the Lost Generation, disillusioned after the First World War. The main characters are Lady Brett Ashley and Jake Barnes. Lady Brett loves Jake, who was injured in the war and unable to attend to his needs. Although Hemingway never explicitly described Jake's injury, it appears that he lost his testicles but not his penis. Jake and Brett and their unlikely group of friends go on adventures across Europe, in Madrid, Paris and Pamplona. To deal with their despair, they turn to alcohol, violence, and sex. The story is told in the first person. Like Jake, Hemingway was wounded in World War I. They also share an interest in bullfighting. Hemingway wrote and rewrote the novel in different places in Spain and France between 1924 and 1926. It became his first great success as a novelist. In 1957 the story was adapted for the screen. The film was directed by Henry King and starred Tyrone Power and Ava Gardner.

After the publication of MEN WITHOUT WOMEN (1927), Hemingway returned to the United States. Hemingway divorced in 1927, and that same year he married Pauline Pfeiffer, a fashion editor. He wrote in Floridagoodbye to arms, published in 1929. The story is set on the Italian front of World War I, where two lovers find brief happiness. The novel was a huge critical and commercial success. In the 1930s, Hemingway wrote important works such as DEATH IN THE AFTERNOON (1932), a non-fiction book about Spanish bullfighting, and THE GREEN HILL OF AFRICA (1935), a story of a hunting safari in Africa. Oriental. “All modern American literature stems from a book by Mark Twain calledfinnish blueberry, " is perhaps the most quoted phrase in history. TO HAVE AND HAVE NOT (1937) was filmed by director Howard Hawks.

Wallace Stevens once called Hemingway "the greatest living poet on the subject of extraordinary reality." By "poet" Stevens meant Hemingway's stylistic achievements in the short story. Among his most famous stories is The Snows of Kilimanjaro, which begins with an epitaph stating that the western peak of the mountain is called the House of God and near which the carcass of a leopard was found. In 1937, Hemingway observed firsthand the Spanish Civil War. Like many writers, he supported the Republican cause. In Madrid he metMartha Gelhorn, writer and war correspondent, who became his third wife in 1940. Hemingway returned to Spain again in 1940. He dedicated the book to Gellhorn: Maria in the story was partly inspired by her. The story lasted only a few days and it was about the demolition of a bridge by a small group of guerrillas. The theme of the arrival of death was also central in the novel ACROSS THE RIVER AND AMONG THE TREES (1950).

In addition to hunting expeditions in Africa and Wyoming, Hemingway developed a passion for deep-sea fishing in the waters of Key West, the Bahamas, and Cuba. He also equipped his fishing boat, thePilar, and with his crew he supervised the activities of the Nazis and their submarines in this area during World War II. The first years of her marriage to Gellhorn were happy, but he soon realized that she was not a housewife but an ambitious journalist. Gellhorn called Hemingway her "reluctant partner of hers". She was eager to travel and "have her finger on the pulse of the nation" or the world. In early 1941, Gellhorn took Hemingway on a 30,000-mile long journey to China. Just before the Normandy invasion in 1944, Hemingway managed to reach London. He previously she had assumed Gellhorn's position asminerscorresponding principal. Hemingway watched the D-Day landings below the Normandy cliffs; Gellhorn landed with the troops. Hemingways and Gellhorn's divorce in 1945 was acrimonious. In 1946, Hemingway returned to Cuba and married Mary Welsh, a correspondent for theTempomagazine he met in a London restaurant in 1944.

Hemingway's drinking had already started when he was a reporter. He tolerates large amounts of alcohol, which for a long time did not affect the quality of his writing. In the late 1940s, he began to hear voices in his head. He was overweight and his blood pressure was high. After weeks of drinking alcohol in Spain, Hemingway consulted a doctor who found that the author was already showing clear signs of cirrhosis of the liver.

Over the river and in the treesIt was Hemingway's first novel in a decade, and it was poorly received. O VELHO E O MAR, first published inlifeOverhauled in 1952, it restored its splendor. The 27,000-word novel tells the story of an elderly Cuban fisherman named Santiago who finally catches a giant marlin after weeks of catching nothing. When he returns to port, sharks eat the fish tied to the boat. Santiago's role model was a Cuban fisherman, Gregorio Fuentes, who died in January 2002 at the age of 104. Hemingway also went fishing in Peru to make a film version of the film.The old man and the sea.

Hemingway spent much of his time in Cuba until Fidel Castro's revolution in 1959. He supported Castro, but when life got too difficult he moved to the United States. While visiting Africa in 1954, Hemingway suffered two plane crashes and was taken to a hospital. That same year he began writing TRUE AT FIRST LIGHT, his last complete book. Part of it appeared inSports Illustrated1972 under the titleafrican newspaper🇧🇷 Hemingway was hospitalized for treatment for depression in 1960 and released in 1961. During this time, he received electroshock therapy for two months. On July 2, Hemingway committed suicide with his favorite shotgun at his home in Ketchum, Idaho. Several of Hemingway's novels have been published posthumously.true at first light, depicting a Kenyan safari, was published in July 1999. It is one of the worst books by a Nobel Prize winner.

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What kind of poem is the lost generation? ›

The Lost Generation is often remembered for their writings related to the First World War and the broader changes that came over society during and after it. These works are often autobiographical, or at least include some features related to the writer's life.

What is the lost generation known for? ›

The Lost Generation is best known as being the cohort which primarily fought in World War I. More than 70 million people were mobilised during the First World War, around 8.5 million of whom were killed and 21 million wounded in the conflict.

Why was the lost generation culturally significant? ›

This group included F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald (Pictured), Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein and many others. The phrase signifies a disillusioned postwar generation characterized by lost values, lost belief in the idea of human progress, and a mood of futility and despair leading to hedonism.

What generation is the lost generation addressing to? ›

Lost Generation, a group of American writers who came of age during World War I and established their literary reputations in the 1920s. The term is also used more generally to refer to the post-World War I generation.

What were the 2 main themes of the writings of the Lost Generation? ›

The term “lost generation”, coined by Gertrude Stein, is applied to a group of writers, poets, and musicians in Paris during the 1920s, often characterized by the similar themes discussed in their work, such as disillusionment in the post-World War I society, loss of identity and tradition, and an uncertainty of the ...

What is the message of lost generation poem? ›

Reed describes a world where people have lost sight of what is important in life and where the expression of individuality as a force is diminished. He so firmly believes that people will be rendered incapable of action that he refuses to accept that any hope exists.

Who started the Lost Generation? ›

Most people credit the origins of the phrase 'Lost Generation' to Gertrude Stein, another American expatriate living in France at the time (albeit one who was a whole generation older than the Lost Generation).

Who represented the Lost Generation and why were they called so? ›

One group of authors in particular gave voice to the disillusionment of those who came of age during the First World War. Their numbers included several American authors living in Paris. The poet and novelist Gertrude Stein is credited with giving them their name: The Lost Generation.

What was the lost generation and what is its effect? ›

The “Lost Generation” of World War I

Those born in the last two decades of the 1800s were heavily impacted. Young people served in the military in large numbers and figured highly in those casualties. Many who survived the war emerged with deep physical or emotional wounds.

What type of poem is my lost youth? ›

'My Lost Youth' by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is a lyric meditating upon the poet's youthful days. It was a glorious time of his life when he was as fresh as dew and as energetic as sea tides. The poem is about the memories that are associated with the Longfellow's youth.

What is the Lost Generation Ernest Hemingway? ›

The term “Lost Generation” became associated with a group of writers and artists with whom Hemingway worked in Paris, France, during the early 1920s. However, the term also refers more broadly to all those who reached adulthood during World War I. In Europe, they have also been called “the generation of 1914.”


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